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Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions and Study Guide

Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions and Study Guide

Everything around us is made up of atoms and molecules, we can see chemistry everywhere. Chemistry has evolved into a discipline with a wide range of applications. There is a lot of variation between chemistry and other fields of research and science. Chemistry is one of the most significant fields of study. Chemistry is the study of matter’s constituents, such as atoms, molecules, and ions, as well as their properties, structure, behaviour, and interactions. It has a wide range of uses in everyday life. The food we consume is merely a concoction of different chemicals. Chemistry plays an important role in the processing of food, as well as in the preparation of food. Take, for example, tomatoes grown on farms. To increase tomato yield, farmers use fertilisers and crop-protection chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides. The ripe tomatoes are then transported to food processing factories, where they are processed into a finished product, such as ketchup, and various ingredients, such as flavouring agents and chemical additives, are applied at various stages of food processing depending on chemistry.

Cleaning, bathing, and washing all require the use of detergents and soaps. They’re made up of a variety of chemicals that have cleaning properties. Saponification of fatty acids is used in the chemical industry to make them. Chemicals developed in the pharmaceutical industry are used to make drugs. For pharmacists and physicians, chemistry knowledge is important. Chemicals are also used to destroy bacteria during sterilisation and disinfection. Chemistry aids pharmacists in comprehending biochemical mechanisms in the human body. Wool, silk, jute, cotton, flax, glass fibre, polyester, acrylic, nylon, and other raw materials are used in the garment industry. These materials are made into useful finished goods such as clothing, containers, carpets, chairs, towels, flags, nets, and balloons, among other things.

Raw materials are exposed to a variety of chemical processes during this transformation. Building efficiency is governed by chemistry. Building materials play an important role in improving building efficiency. Reflective roofs are made possible by coating chemicals such as acrylics, silicones, and urethane, which reduce heat transfer.

With so many practical applications of chemistry knowledge in everyday life, focusing solely on the school curriculum is insufficient. You must be able to complete NCERT in order to concentrate on developing an in-depth understanding of chemistry and studying. Thus, Extra marks saves the day by supplying you with the best Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions, allowing you to finish your syllabus ahead of schedule and concentrate on the topic as a foundation for life with a deep conceptual understanding. Now is the time to download the Extra marks app and start searching for the best Chemistry research materials available. Few examples of chapters in that are comprehensively discussed in the NCERT Solutions are as follows:

Chapter 1: The Solid State

The solid state is the subject of this chapter. There are 11 subtopics in total. This chapter discusses crystalline and amorphous solids, as well as solid defects. It starts with a detailed explanation of the unit cell and then progresses to the solid state. The solutions are written using the NCERT text as a guide. It explains the concepts in the textbook and aids students in reinforcing the fundamentals.

Chapter 2: Solutions

The second chapter discusses the different types of solutions and their characteristics. Raoult’s law, concentration of solutions, vapour pressure of liquid solutions, irregular molar masses, and colligative properties are among the topics covered. The back and in-chapter activities are designed to reinforce concepts, while the solutions assist students in doing so. This chapter is worth a total of 5 points on the Board test.

Chapter 3:  Electrochemistry

The electrochemical cell is the subject of this chapter. The galvanic and electrolytic cells are also taught to students. The standard potential of the cell, the Gibbs energy of cell reaction, and the relationship with the equilibrium constant are all explained in this chapter. The Kohlrausch Law and its implementations will be taught to the students.

Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics

The kinetics, or rate of a reaction, is the subject of this chapter. The factors influencing the rate of a reaction, the integrated rate equation, Pseudo First Order reactions, and the collision theory of chemical reactions are among the topics discussed. This chapter is also accountable from the engineering and medical sciences perspectives.

Sodium and Its Important Compounds

Sodium and Its Important Compounds

Sodium is a Group 1 alkali metal with atomic number 11 and chemically represented as “Na”. It is a white, soft alkali metal that is extremely unstable. It has one electron in the outer shells, producing a sodium ion upon losing it. In general, sodium is not free, as it is extremely reactive. To avoid its action in the atmosphere, it is preserved in kerosene oil. It includes primarily three minerals, including feldspar, sodalite and rock salt Sodium Chloride (NaCl).

Sodium chloride can be obtained when sodium forms bonds with chlorine. As sodium forms bonds with chlorine, sodium chloride is being formed. To obtain sodium hydroxide, sodium reacts vigorously with water, snow and ice.

Properties Of Sodium

  • Sodium has a strong metallic lustre and is very similar in colour to silver.
  • At common temperatures, it is delicate that it can be moulded by the pressure of the fingers into leaves.
  • Sodium compounds quickly tarnish, but less readily than potassium, when exposed to the sunlight.
  • Sodium is instantly oxidized by water, hydrogen gas in temporary unity with some sodium being disengaged.
  • Sodium has a lower melting & boiling point than lithium.
  • Metallic bonding is available.
  • It is also conducting since it has one free electron.
  • In a flame test, it shows yellow.
  • The sodium atom has a common oxidation state of +1.
  • It has lower 1st ionization energy.

The Important Compound Of Sodium

The economically important sodium compounds and their applications are mentioned below.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

  • Sodium Hydroxide relates to the inorganic substance group and is typically found at room temperature in the form of a white solid.
  • Sodium cations and hydroxide anions end up making up the chemical substance.
  • Its chemical formula is NaOH and is generally referred to as Iye or caustic soda.
  • Sodium hydroxide is a colourless compound and soluble in ethanol, water and glycerol.

Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

  • Sodium carbonate is a carbonic acid diazonium salt which has the chemical formula Na2CO3.
  • It is often referred to as soda ash, Soda crystals and washing soda.
  • It is soluble in water and forms carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide when dissolved in water.
  • It is a white powder in its pure form and it is odourless.
  • It is a powerful base and behaves like an antacid.
  • Four processes namely Labnac method, Solvay method, Electrolytic and Dual-process, through which sodium carbonate can be prepared.
  • Since it is a weak acid, in ethanol it is slightly soluble and in alcohol it is insoluble.
  • One of Na2CO3‘s significant uses is as a water softener.
  • The pH is approximately 10.52.

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

  • Sodium chloride is an ionic compound wherein the ratio of sodium ions to chloride ions is 1:1.
  • It is generally referred to as table salt, common salt, or halite.
  • It is the salt that is mainly accountable for seawater salinity and the extracellular fluid that exists in many multicellular species.
  • From household to industrial applications, it is required.
  • A major source of this salt is seawater.
  • It is readily soluble in water and other liquids, it is partially soluble/ insoluble.
  • They are white crystals that do not have a smell but have a taste.
  • Due to the free flow of the ions, NaCl serves as a strong conductor of electricity in its aqueous state.

Use Of Sodium Compounds

Sodium compounds have many uses, including hydrogen peroxide preparation, that is by the action of dilute acids on sodium peroxide.

Na2O3 + H2SO4 → H2O2 (30%) + Na2SO4

The main uses of sodium compounds are listed below.

Sodium carbonate

  • Used in cleaning, laundering and water softening process.
  • Used in borax, glass, soap & caustic soda production.
  • It is being used in the fields of painting and textiles.
  • It plays a major role in the lab while quantitative and qualitative and research.

Sodium hydroxide

  • It is being used in the manufacture of paper, soap, artificial silk, etc.
  • Its use was found during the refining of petroleum.
  • It is used in the textile industry, including in the cotton market.
  • In labs, it’s being used as a precipitating agent.
  • It is used during the processing of fats and oils.

Sodium chloride

  • For domestic purposes, it is used as common salt.
  • It is used for sodium peroxide, sodium hydroxide, and sodium carbonate preparations.

School Aggressiveness

After secondary school, most understudies won’t be made a beeline for school for a game. Rather, they will look find what they need to do throughout everyday life. Understudies at that point need to make sense of what they’re going to study and how they’re going to invest their energy. This is where the vast majority disregard what they realized in games and on the off chance that the individual never played a game in any case, they are at a tremendous detriment since they never got the opportunity to observe the aggressiveness that just games bring out of an individual. Individuals dependably assume that being aggressive just methods endeavoring to beat somebody. A genuine contender simply needs to win and in reality, somebody doesn’t need to get beat down all the while.

So how are you going to succeed at life? That is the means by which you need to think when beginning school provided that you’re picking a noteworthy in light of the fact that it appears to be fun or basic, you’re not soliciting the genuine inquiry from “will it enable me to be the best me I can be?” I picked business and all the more explicitly chance Protection since I realized that would accommodate my qualities and enable me to be fruitful post graduation. Presently whether you’ve picked a noteworthy or not, you need to make sense of what you’re going to do with this available time. In games you needed to deal with your time extremely well so you could rehearse at your specialty, for this situation it’s your major, and still have some good times and have a ball. School truly tests your focused edge as heaps of understudies lose theirs and end up sluggish and inevitably perform inadequately.

There are different parts that go into being effective at your specific type of employment. The initial segment is finding that activity. You can never be really upbeat just from the measure of cash you make from your activity, you have to really appreciate what you’re doing. This implies forcefully scanning for the correct activity for you. You do this by using your internal focused nature. Individuals who make due with an okay occupation are those that aren’t intensely searching for a vocation.

When you locate the correct activity for you, presently you need to get the offer. It’s insufficient to simply discover an occupation that appears as though it would be decent for you, you need to take the necessary steps to make the business believe you’re appropriate for them. You do this by concentrate the organization, realize what abilities they’re searching for and having the capacity to pass on that you get each one of those vital aptitudes to be effective for them. You additionally practice your meeting aptitudes again and again and over. It’s in the meetings that you separate yourself from the rest. A resume truly doesn’t mean much now a days. On the off chance that an organization truly thinks that much about your resume, they most likely likewise care substantially more about the school you visited. Different organizations see resumes to check whether they’re qualified for a meeting yet it’s at the meeting where it makes a difference. At long last, how are you going to perform once you get the activity? A few people land the position and simply drift since they’re upbeat about the activity and approve of remaining in that position. Contenders are perpetually discontent and realize that currently is the place they truly begin attempting to flaunt their gifts. The various things are simply in the background until the point that you get the activity, at that point it’s showtime for rivals. Presently is the place you utilize every one of your aptitudes to advance yourself beyond and demonstrate the organization what you’re prepared to do with the goal that you can proceed to endeavor and make progress.